1a Discussion Board
1b Individual Project
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In your own words, answer this unit’s discussion questions in a main post (recommended minimum 300 words), and respond to at least two peers’ postings (recommended minimum 75 words).
After you have reviewed the Assignment Details below, click the Discussion Board link under the My Work heading above to open the Discussion Board and make your post.
Assignment Details
Using the course materials, textbook, library, and Web resources, research, list, and discuss 5 specific ways in which Cesare Beccaria’s work in Essays on Crimes and Punishment (1764) is still relevant to how offenders are treated in the criminal justice system today.
For guidance in your research, you can refer to your textbook. You can also read a short article about Cesare Beccaria here.
Assignment Guidelines:
Research Cesare Beccaria, his contributions to penology, and his influence on modern corrections. In 4–6 paragraphs, address the following:
List and explain 5 ways in which his work is still relevant to corrections, criminal justice, and the treatment of offenders today.
Be sure to reference all sources.
Post a new topic to the Discussion Board that contains your responses pertaining to the above information.
Comment on at least 2 other students’ posts, and offer and explain to them another reason, different from their original 5, why Cesare Beccaria’s work is still relevant today.
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Assignment Details
The classical view of punishment was fueled by the notion that offenders were evil men and women who had to be punished severely or killed for their egregious acts. It was felt that the demons that possessed the offenders would never leave except by expiation and punishment.
As the influence of natural and social science grew, many individuals began to reexamine the widely accepted idea that crime resulted from demonic possession, free will, or mental imbalance. Positivists took a progressive stance and began to analyze the causes of crime and punishment.
Prepare an essay (3–4 pages) on the differences between the classical and positivist approaches to punishment.
You can use the following resources to support your essay:
Classical Approaches
Classical School of Criminology Quick Reference
Classical School of Thought
Positivist Approaches
Positivist School of Criminology Quick Reference
Positivist School of Thought
Assignment Guidelines
Use your course materials, the textbook, the Web resources, and the library to research the classical and positivist approaches to punishment.
In a Word document of 3–4 pages, address the following:
Identify 2 specific differences and 2 similarities between each perspective as it relates to punishment.
Examine 2 of the social arguments used to support both schools of thought.
Out of the 2 schools of thought, which do you agree with most?
Include 3 philosophical or social issues that could be used to support either model.
Reference all sources using APA style.
I put refrences onto word document for this project
Prison law
2a discussion board
In your own words, answer this unit’s discussion questions in a main post (300 words), and respond to at least 2 peers’ postings on 2 different days (75 words each).
After you have reviewed the Assignment Details below, click the Discussion Board link under the My Work heading above to open the Discussion Board and make your post.
Review the tutorial How to Post to the Discussion Board.
Assignment Guidelines
Out of all of the constitutional amendments, the First Amendment embodies the foundation of the American way of life and is highly valued by American society. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. expressed the belief of many that free speech is essential for competition and the search for truth. Freedom of speech is important to the United States because it allows for the evaluation and challenge of governmental abuses of power.
Research the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, explain its major provisions, and identify the provisions that are of significance to prisoners.
Using your course materials, textbook, and Web resources, research the provisions of the First Amendment, and answer the following questions:
Which of the major provisions of the First Amendment do you feel is the most important to prisoners? Explain why.
When responding to your peers, if you chose a different provision, argue why your chosen provision is more important. If you chose the same provision, compare your justification to your peer’s justification. Did he or she have a better justification for choosing that provision?
Turner v. Safley, 482 U.S. 78 (1987), was the U.S. Supreme Court case that established the legal standards that correctional facilities must meet concerning offender management policies, specifically the policies that restrict the First Amendment rights of prisoners. In Turner v. Safley, the correctional facilities were afforded the legal right to restrict the constitutional liberties of offenders when those liberties interfere with the safety and security of the institution. In other words, if a correctional institution can establish a legitimate penological reason for enacting a restrictive policy, then the policy is perfectly constitutional inside a correctional setting.
This standard leaves plenty of room for offenders to continually challenge institutional policies and legislative acts, such as when an offender challenged the Ensign Amendment in Jordan v. Sosa (2008). Upon judicial review, such as in Beard v. Banks, 548 U.S. 521 (2006), restrictive prison policies are often upheld. Other times, although these policies may have previously withstood judicial scrutiny, their continued use is no longer considered to be legally viable. A recent example of one such Supreme Court decision is Holt v. Hobbs, 135 S. Ct. 853 (2015), wherein the Court deemed that the correctional practice in question no longer satisfied the Turner test. As such, the correctional agency was required to alter its practice to satisfy constitutional requirements.
Referencing at least 2 credible sources and using proper American Psychological Association (APA) formatting and guidelines, submit a 3–4-page paper that examines the conflict between the needs of correctional facilities to maintain the safety and security of their institutions and the needs of offenders to maintain their personal liberties. In doing so, please complete the following:
Summarize the facts surrounding Turner v. Safley.
Discuss the four considerations of the Turner test.
Summarize the Ensign Amendment or 1997
Summarize the facts of Jordan v. Sosa.
Discuss the facts of Jordan in relation to the Turner test.
Summarize the facts of Beard v. Banks.
Discuss the facts of Beard in relation to the Turner test.
Summarize the facts surrounding Holt v. Hobbs.
Discuss the facts of Holt in relation to the Turner test.
Do you agree with the Turner test as it applies to correctional administration and offender rights? If so, why? If not, what do you think would be a better testing measure?

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