In context of Nutrition Concepts and Controversies by Sizer and Whitney
Essay Assignment Guidelines
300 words
After reading the chapter, reflect on the concepts within the chapter. In your own words,
summarize one or two key concepts that stood out to you. In addition to your summary,
include some of your own thoughts regarding the topic and why it drew your attention.
Chapter Objectives
Describe the ways in which food choices impact a person’s health.
List the seven major categories of nutrition and weight-related objectives included in the publication Healthy People 2020.
Name the six classes of nutrients.
Give examples of the challenges and solutions to choosing a health-promoting diet.
Describe the science of nutrition.
Describe the characteristics of the six stages of behavior change.
Explain how the concept of nutrient density can facilitate diet planning.
Evaluate the authenticity of any given nutrition information source.
Main Points/Notes
Proteins are unique among the energy nutrients in that they are composed of amino acids, which contain nitrogen as well as carbon and oxygen.
Of the 20 amino acids, nine are essential amino acids.
Under special circumstances, a nonessential amino acid can become essential.
Amino acids link into long strands that make a wide variety of different proteins.
Each type of protein has a distinctive sequence of amino acids and so has great functional specificity.
Certain proteins are common to all cells. In addition, specialized cells synthesize specific proteins that enable them to do distinct jobs.
Nutrients do not alter genes, but they powerfully influence genetic expression.
Proteins can be denatured by heat, acids, bases, alcohol, the salts of heavy metals, or other agents.
Denaturation begins the process of digesting food protein and can also destroy body proteins.
Digestion of protein involves denaturation by stomach acid and enzymatic digestion in the stomach and small intestine to amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides.
The cells of the small intestine complete digestion, absorb amino acids and some larger peptides, and release them into the bloodstream for use by the body’s cells.
The body needs dietary amino acids to grow new cells and to replace old or damaged ones.
Proteins help regulate gene expression; provide structure and movement; serve as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies; provide molecular transport; help regulate fluid and electrolyte balance; buffer the blood; contribute to blood clotting; and provide energy.
Amino acids can be used as fuel or converted to glucose or fat.
No storage form of protein exists in the body.
Amino acids can be metabolized to protein, nitrogen plus energy, glucose, or fat.
Amino acids will be metabolized to protein only if sufficient energy is present from other sources.
When energy is lacking, the nitrogen part is removed from each amino acid, and the resulting fragment is oxidized for energy.
The protein intake recommendation depends on size and stage of growth.
The DRI for adults is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.
Factors concerning both the body and food sources modify an individual’s protein need.
Protein recommendations are based on nitrogen balance studies, which compare nitrogen excreted from the body with nitrogen ingested in food.
Digestibility of protein varies from food to food, and cooking can improve or impair it.
A protein’s amino acid assortment greatly influences its usefulness to the body.
Low-quality food proteins lack essential amino acids and so can be used to build body structures only if the missing amino acids are supplied by other sources.
The more severely food supplies are limited, the more important protein quality becomes.
Most U.S. protein intakes fall within the DRI range of 10 to 35 percent of calories.
No Tolerable Upper Intake Level exists for protein, but health risks may accompany the overconsumption of protein-rich foods.
Gluten-free diets often relieve symptoms of celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or gluten allergy, but no evidence supports claims that they cure other ills.
this is my style of a reflection essay, i tend to list things a lot and tell what i learned or understand now:
In the fourth chapter, we learned more about carbohydrates, fibers, and sugar, further emphasizing exactly why these are so essential to our health and diets. The chapter first explains how carbohydrates are synthesized by the plants and how our bodies then break down the components of carbohydrates to use them as the main source of energy for bodily functions. This helped me understand why carbohydrates need to be consumed in larger amounts in ratio to fats and proteins. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants use carbon dioxide, water, and the energy from the sun to form glucose, which is the most important monosaccharide sugar used to be absorbed by our bodies. Our digestive systems, pancreas, and liver all work together to break down carbohydrates into raw materials and energy in order for our blood cells, muscles, and brain to be sufficiently supplied or to be stored as glycogen or fat for later use. A new term I learned about is “insoluble fiber,” which is a type of carbohydrate that is indigestible but still supports the body by sustaining traction for the digestive tract; it helps aid with waste secretion from our colon, which in turn can provide support for plants. Fiber is also important for modulating glucose absorption and helps improve blood sugar levels. Part of the chapter also helped us identify foods that are enriched with healthy carbohydrates, sugars, and fibers and to know why they are important in our diets in order to avoid health issues. Many of these health issues that I recognize are some common issues such as diabetes, lactose intolerance, and high blood cholesterol. I developed a better grasp of understanding how plants and animals, or humans, interchangeably use raw materials to produce and break down carbohydrate compounds such as fructose, galactose, and glucose to help cycle and sustain life.

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