Hi – For the topic i chose to talk about is polarization. You can choose what ki

Hi
– For the topic i chose to talk about is polarization. You can choose what kind of polarization especifically. For example it could be police brutality, racism anything.
– based on our teacher we need to include at least 2 countries that shows polarization.
– for the sources it needs to be academic sources.
thank you.
– all the instruction is attached with the document.

The struggle for equal rights is still ongoing. Minorities face many struggles

The struggle for equal rights is still ongoing. Minorities face many struggles in acquiring social, political, and economic equality. While de jure discrimination is easier to combat, de facto discrimination is very difficult to erase. The legacy of Jim Crow and other discriminatory practices can be seen today. The criminal justice system is heavily biased against minorities through both systemic and individual prejudices. For instance, Black defendants are more than 30% more likely to be sentenced to prison for the same crime committed by a similarly situated White defendant. This impacts opportunities not only for the individual, but also for their community and family. Minorities Make up approximately 30% of the population but make up around 60% of the prison population, even though minorities are no more likely to commit crimes than their white counterparts.
Given these facts, what can be done? Is the problem due purely to system bias? Should programs like affirmative action (which benefits women more than any other group and actually benefits whites as well. The group most negatively affected are actually Asian students) be used? California has seen a precipitous drop in minority students and a decrease in white students by 56.9% and 33.3% respectively, between 1990 and 2005 with the end of affirmative action and an increase in Asian students by more than 46%. Would a top 10% be better? How do we combat de facto discrimination?
In your discussion be sure to be respectful and to not make blanket statements about groups unless it is a statistical statement (Hispanics are 45% more likely to …). If possible, use statistics to help make your point. As I noted above, implicit racism is not just something that out-group members feel towards a group (white/black, black/white, hispanic/black, hispanic/white, etc…) but can be seen within groups (black/black, white/white, hispanic/hispanic).

Students must respond to 1 discussion prompt in this thread. Students must answe

Students must respond to 1 discussion prompt in this thread.
Students must answer 1 of the provided prompts using the appropriate formatting.
Students must respond to 2 separate student answers.
You cannot respond to the same student twice
You must respond to an ANSWER submitted by another student and NOT their response to another student.
Students must completely answer each question within a prompt.
Answers must be written in complete sentences and address each question completely.
Not answering a prompt completely will result in a point deduction.
Responses to other students must address their answer critically by either agreeing or disagreeing with their position and explaining why.
Students must use the following format to post within this discussion thread.
When answering a prompt, use the following format:
Identify which prompt you are answering followed by your answer.
Example: ANSWER TO PROMPT 3: I believe that…
DISCUSSION PROMPT 1: Two issues that most Americans struggle with when engaging with news and media are selection bias and cognitive dissonance. For example, people are more likely to seek out news that confirms their assumptions (selection bias) and reject news that disagrees with their assumptions despite overwhelming evidence (cognitive dissonance). Thinking about news and media that you engage with regularly, are you guilty or either of these issues? How do these information-processing factors explain your news habits? How do these habits affect the ability of news to influence individual opinions?
DISCUSSION PROMPT 2: Most states do not restore felons’ right to vote after the completion of their sentences. Given the racial disparities in the American criminal justice system (e.g., 1 in 13 African Americans have lost their right to vote due to felon disenfranchisement, as compared to 1 in 56 non-Black voters, according to the Sentencing Project 2020), do you think states should or should not restore felons’ right to vote? Should citizens lose the right to vote in certain circumstances, or should this right be absolute and never taken away? Explain your answer. How might felon disenfranchisement laws impact a community’s willingness to vote in general?
DISCUSSION PROMPT 3: Some political scientists claim that political parties are essential for the functioning of modern democratic government. What might modern democratic governments look like without political parties? What roles and functions do parties perform? Are there ways for parties to perform these functions more effectively? If so, what are some reforms you could propose to our current party system?
DISCUSSION PROMPT 4: When people vote, which is more important, a candidate’s personality and character or their stand on the issues? Is it more plausible that voters would select a candidate with character problems but a strong vision, or a candidate with excellent personal character but little vision or sense of where they want to take the nation? Give an example of a politician you know of that fits into either category and how voters responded to their candidacy.
DISCUSSION PROMPT 5: Critics of Congress are concerned about high reelection rates for incumbent members of Congress and have advocated for term limits as a way to formally remove longtime representatives. Why do you think these proposals for term limits are being advanced? Are there advantages to having long-serving members of Congress in office? Are there other ways of addressing the incumbency advantage to give challengers an equal opportunity to win elections?
DISCUSSION PROMPT 6: Since the 1800s, the president’s power has grown at the expense of Congress. Has the executive branch become too strong, or is the executive branch just powerful enough to address the demands of a growing nation? Using examples from the book, which presidential powers, if any, do you believe should be limited? How and why?

Governor & Lt. Governor (22 points) Visit the California Governor’s website (htt

Governor & Lt. Governor (22 points)
Visit the California Governor’s website (https://www.gov.ca.gov/) to answer the following questions:
Who is the Governor of California? What is their political party information? (2 points)
What are three powers AND/OR responsibilities of the governor? Explain/define those powers/responsibilities. (3 points)
Who is the First Partner/Spouse of California? (1 point)
On the First Partner’s bio, what is one interesting fact about them? (1 point)
The first partner sponsors 3 initiatives on their website. Choose 1 initiative and pick a program under that initiative you find interesting/support. What is the name of that program? What does that program do? Why do you find it interesting/support it? (3 points)
Under “Newsroom,” news regarding the governor’s actions are highlighted. What is a recent story you find interesting? What is the subject of that news story? Why do you find it interested? (3 points)
Visit the California Lieutenant Governor’s website (https://www.ca.gov/) to answer the following questions:
Who is the Lieutenant Governor of California? What is their political party affiliation? (2 points)
What is one power OR responsibility of the Lieutenant Governor? Explain/define that power/responsibility? (1 points)
What do they prioritize as Lieutenant Governor? What is one interesting fact from their bio/website? (2 points)
Who is the First Partner/Spouse of the Lieutenant Governor? What is one interesting fact from their bio/website? (2 points)
On a rotating basis with the State Controller, what three-person commission does the Lieutenant Governor chair? What does this commission do? (2 points)
Attorney General (13 points)
Visit the Attorney General of California’s (https://oag.ca.gov/about) website to answer the following questions:
Who is the current Attorney General of California? What is their political party affiliation? (2 points)
What background did the Attorney General have prior to holding office? What is one interesting fact about them from their bio/website? (2 points)
What is the role and responsibility of the Attorney General? Be detailed and specific. (5 points)
What is one power of the Attorney General? Define/explain that power. (1 point)
Under the “What we’re Working On” section, choose an issue that interests you and summarize it. What is the Attorney General doing on that issue? (3 points)
Secretary of State (19 points)
Visit the California Secretary of State’s website (https://www.sos.ca.gov/) to answer the following questions:
Who is the current Secretary of State? What is their political party affiliation? (2 points)
What background did the Secretary of State have prior to holding office? What is one interesting fact about the Secretary of State? (2 points)
What is the role and responsibility of the Secretary of State? Be detailed and specific. (5 points)
For the following questions, use the Initiative and Referendum Qualification Status website (https://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/ballot-measures/initiative-and-referendum-status). The provided website lists the status of proposed ballot initiatives that could appear on the ballot at the next general election. Select any of the initiatives located on the website to answer the following question.
Based on your opinion of the issues presented, which ballot initiative SHOULD qualify for voters to vote on? What does that initiative do? Why should voters be allowed to vote on that issue? (5 points)
Based on your opinion of the issues presented, which ballot initiative SHOULD NOT qualify for voters to vote on? What does that initiative do? Why shouldn’t voters be allowed to vote on that issue? (5 points)
Treasurer (12 points)
Visit the California State Treasurer’s website (https://www.treasurer.ca.gov/) to answer the following questions:
Who is the current State Treasurer? What is their political party affiliation? (2 points)
What background did the State Treasurer have prior to holding office? What is one interesting fact about the State Treasurer? (2 points)
What is the role and responsibility of the State Treasurer? Be detailed and specific. (5 points)
Under the “Programs” section of their website, how many programs are listed? (1 point)
Choose one program that interests you and summarize it. What does that program do? (2 points)
Superintendent of Public Instruction (13 points)
Visit the California Superintendent of Public Instruction’s website (https://www.cde.ca.gov/) to answer the following questions:
Who is the current Superintendent of Public Instruction? (1 point)
What background did the Superintendent of Public Instruction have prior to holding office? What is one interesting fact about the Superintendent of Public Instruction? (2 points)
What is the role and responsibility of the Superintendent of Public Instruction? Be detailed and specific. (5 points)
The California Superintendent of Public Instruction lists key initiatives that they prioritize. Select 2 you find interesting to answer the following questions:
What is the name of the first initiative you selected and what is its goal? Why do you believe this initiative is important? (2 points)
What is the name of the second initiative and what is its goal? Why do you believe this initiative is important? (2 points)
Under order of the governor, what task force was the Superintendent of Public Instruction required to establish? (1 point)

Would you favor amending the constitution to allow federal judges to serve only

Would you favor amending the constitution to allow federal judges to serve only a single 10-year term (without possibility of reappointment)? Would it undermine the independence of the courts and their ability to uphold unpopular rights? Why or why not?
LEARNING OUTCOMES: You should be able to see that, yet again, we are back to the notion of structure affecting process which affects outcome.
In the context of the above question, though, explain how changing the constitution to limit federal judges (including Justices on the Supreme Court) to a 10 year term would affect American policy in general? Also, given that there is a lot of conflict over federal court judge appointments, explain how the change would either escalate the culture wars or diminish the extent of conflict (i.e., anger) from the culture wars in America? After considering that, did it affect your answer to whether you would favor the constitutional change.

*THIS ASSIGNMENT REQUIRES YOU TO ACTUALLY READ THE ASSIGNED BOOK** BOOK:The Conf

*THIS ASSIGNMENT REQUIRES YOU TO ACTUALLY READ THE ASSIGNED BOOK**
BOOK:The Confluence of Racial Politics in America
Critical Writings
by Bracey
ISBN: 9781793513694, 9781793523464
This details the format for these book reports:
1.TYPE
2. The book report must be at least seven (7) double-spaced pages (typed).
3. This book report is to be based upon a student having read the required/assigned book.
The length of the work should not be the determining factor in a student’s report.
4. This report is to reflect an analytical review of the work read and IS NOT TO BE A
LENGTHY RE-HASH OF THE BOOK’S CONTENTS.
5. How does a student analyze a book?
a. Determine the author’s purpose and thesis (theses).
b. Does the work successfully develop the purpose of thesis (theses)?
c. Why does it develop them or why does it not develop them?
d. What are the strengths or weaknesses of the work?
e. Does the author write well or poorly?
f. What are the sources the author consulted in his or her study? (Look at the
bibliography.)
g. Was the book edited careful?
h. Is it a work of scholarship?
6. Use a cover sheet for your report and on this cover sheet put your name
7. At the top of the page one, type the following type of information about the book you
read:
The Last Empire: Nationality and the Soviet Future, edited by Robert Conquest. Stanford,
Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1986, 406 pp., Index, and Bibliography. (EXAMPLE)
8. After typing the bibliographical entry, skip two spaces and start your report by stating the
author’s purpose(s) and thesis (theses). From this point your report will be showing your
reader how the author develops or fails to develop why he or she has written this work.
9. Make analytical remarks about the work (see #6 above for some suggestions — bare in
mind that the suggestions are not exhaustive but are supplied to you in an attempt to
challenge your thought processes).
10. Conclude your report with an evaluation of the book. Base your conclusion(s) upon your
analytical view(s).
11. You may find it advisable to consult a book review or book reviews written by colleagues
of your author. Check library holdings for the Book Review Digest or consult a reference
librarian for reviews in scholarly publications.
12. DO NOT FAIL TO READ THE AUTHOR’S PREFACE OR INTRODUCTION
BECAUSE THIS IS, MOST LIKELY, WHERE THE READER WILL FIND A
STATEMENT OF THE WRITER’S PURPOSE(S) AND THESIS (THESES). Be careful
when reading chapters one and the last one because these are where the writer sets out his or
her case (chapter one) and makes his or her conclusion(s) – in the last one or epilogue.
THIS IS TO BE A COLLEGE-LEVEL, ACCEPTABLE BOOK REPORT AND IS NOT TO BE
A LENGTHY RE-HASH OF WHAT THE AUTHOR HAS WRITTEN. DEMONSTRATE TO
YOUR INSTRUCTOR THAT YOU HAVE READ THE BOOK, ANALYZED IT, AND HAVE
DONE YOUR BEST TO COMMUNICATE YOUR THOUGHTS ON PAPER